Prometheus报警AlertManager实战

Prometheus报警AlertManager实战

标签: kubernetes   prometheus   alertmanager  

在前面一文Kubernetes使用Prometheus搭建监控平台中我们知道了怎么使用Prometheus来搭建监控平台,也了解了grafana的使用。这篇文章就来说说报警系统的搭建,有人说报警用grafana就行了,实际上grafana对报警的支持真的很弱,而Prometheus提供的报警系统就强大很多,今天我们的主角就是AlertManager

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AlertManager 简介

Prometheus将数据采集和报警分成了两个模块。报警规则配置在Prometheus Servers上,然后发送报警信息到AlertManger,然后我们的AlertManager就来管理这些报警信息,包括silencinginhibition,聚合报警信息过后通过email、PagerDuty、HipChat、Slack 等方式发送消息提示。

AlertManager提供服务总的来说就下面3步: * 安装和配置AlertManger * 配置Prometheus来和AlertManager通信 * 在Prometheus中创建报警规则

安装和配置AlertManager

从官方文档https://prometheus.io/docs/alerting/configuration/中我们可以看到下载alertmanager二进制文件过后,通过下面的命令就可运行

$ ./alertmanager -config.file=simple.yml

可以通过-config.file来指定相应的配置文件,我们这里在kubernetes平台上面来运行我们的AlertManager,所以我们直接用docker镜像的方式来安装,使用的镜像是:quay.io/prometheus/alertmanager:v0.12.0,如果你因为某些原因不能拉取该镜像,可以直接去下载AlertManager源代码,然后自己构建打包一个docker镜像也是一样的。

通过ConfigMap来指定配置文件,如下:

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: alertmanager
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  config.yml: |-
    global:
      resolve_timeout: 5m
    route:
      receiver: webhook
      group_wait: 30s
      group_interval: 5m
      repeat_interval: 4h
      group_by: [alertname]
      routes:
      - receiver: webhook
        group_wait: 10s
        match:
          team: node
    receivers:
    - name: webhook
      webhook_configs:
      - url: 'http://apollo/hooks/dingtalk/'
        send_resolved: true
      - url: 'http://apollo/hooks/prome/'
        send_resolved: true

我们这里定义了两个webhook,其中一个是钉钉,另外一个是email。关于钉钉机器人可以查看官方文档,钉钉的报警通知很简单,在你们的钉钉群里面添加一个机器人然后就可以获取到一个带token的URL,然后根据上面的文档往这个URL发送数据即可。

配置Prometheus来和AlertManager通信

在我们之前的PrometheusConfigMap中增加AlertManager的配置:

alerting:
  alertmanagers:
    - static_configs:
      - targets: ["localhost:9093"]

由于我们这个地方将PrometheusAlertManager部署在同一个POD中,而AlertManager的默认端口是9093,所以直接使用localhost:9093就可以互相通信了。 prometheus-pod

Prometheus中创建报警规则

同样的我们还需要添加报警规则:

rule_files:
    - /etc/prometheus/rules.yml

其中rule_files就是用来指定报警规则的,这里我们将rules.ymlConfigMap的形式挂载到/etc/prometheus目录下面即可:

rules.yml: |
    groups:
    - name: test-rule
      rules:
      - alert: NodeFilesystemUsage
        expr: (node_filesystem_size{device="rootfs"} - node_filesystem_free{device="rootfs"}) / node_filesystem_size{device="rootfs"} * 100 > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Filesystem usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Filesystem usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeMemoryUsage
        expr: (node_memory_MemTotal - (node_memory_MemFree+node_memory_Buffers+node_memory_Cached )) / node_memory_MemTotal * 100 > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Memory usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Memory usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeCPUUsage
        expr: (100 - (avg by (instance) (irate(node_cpu{job="kubernetes-node-exporter",mode="idle"}[5m])) * 100)) > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High CPU usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: CPU usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"

我们这里添加了3条测试的报警规则,分别是节点的文件系统、节点内存和CPU的使用量,如果大于了80%的话就触发label为team=nodereceiver(上面alertmanager 配置文件中),我们可以看到上面的配置就会匹配webhook这个receiver,然后会将报警信息POST到我们提供的两个HOOK 接口中(一个是通知钉钉的,另外一个是发邮件的)。

一个报警信息在生命周期内有下面3中状态:

  • inactive: 表示当前报警信息既不是firing状态也不是pending状态
  • pending: 表示在设置的阈值时间范围内被激活了
  • firing: 表示超过设置的阈值时间被激活了

prometheus-alert-module

我们直接点击上面的expr会直接跳转到graph页面查询,我们在制定报警规则的时候同样可以先在Prometheus里面先测试我们的表达式: alert-info

全部配置

整体的ConfigMap配置文件如下cm.yaml:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-config
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval: 30s
      scrape_timeout: 30s

    rule_files:
    - /etc/prometheus/rules.yml

    alerting:
      alertmanagers:
        - static_configs:
          - targets: ["localhost:9093"]

    scrape_configs:
    - job_name: 'prometheus'
      static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9090']

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-apiservers'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
        action: keep
        regex: default;kubernetes;https

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
      scheme: https
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: kubernetes.default.svc:443
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_node_name]
        regex: (.+)
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        replacement: /api/v1/nodes/${1}/proxy/metrics/cadvisor

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-node-exporter'
      scheme: http
      tls_config:
        ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
      bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: node
      relabel_configs:
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_role]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_role
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        regex: '(.*):10250'
        replacement: '${1}:31672'
        target_label: __address__

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-service-endpoints'
      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: endpoints
      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scrape]
        action: keep
        regex: true
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scheme]
        action: replace
        target_label: __scheme__
        regex: (https?)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_path]
        action: replace
        target_label: __metrics_path__
        regex: (.+)
      - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
        action: replace
        target_label: __address__
        regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
        replacement: $1:$2
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
        action: replace
        target_label: kubernetes_name

    - job_name: 'kubernetes-services'
      metrics_path: /probe
      params:
        module: [http_2xx]

      kubernetes_sd_configs:
      - role: service

      relabel_configs:
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_probe]
        action: keep
        regex: true
      - source_labels: [__address__]
        target_label: __param_target
      - target_label: __address__
        replacement: blackbox-exporter.example.com:9115
      - source_labels: [__param_target]
        target_label: instance
      - action: labelmap
        regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
        target_label: kubernetes_namespace
      - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
        target_label: kubernetes_name

  rules.yml: |
    groups:
    - name: test-rule
      rules:
      - alert: NodeFilesystemUsage
        expr: (node_filesystem_size{device="rootfs"} - node_filesystem_free{device="rootfs"}) / node_filesystem_size{device="rootfs"} * 100 > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Filesystem usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Filesystem usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeMemoryUsage
        expr: (node_memory_MemTotal - (node_memory_MemFree+node_memory_Buffers+node_memory_Cached )) / node_memory_MemTotal * 100 > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High Memory usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: Memory usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"
      - alert: NodeCPUUsage
        expr: (100 - (avg by (instance) (irate(node_cpu{job="kubernetes-node-exporter",mode="idle"}[5m])) * 100)) > 80
        for: 2m
        labels:
          team: node
        annotations:
          summary: "{{$labels.instance}}: High CPU usage detected"
          description: "{{$labels.instance}}: CPU usage is above 80% (current value is: {{ $value }}"

---
kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: alertmanager
  namespace: kube-ops
data:
  config.yml: |-
    global:
      resolve_timeout: 5m
    route:
      receiver: webhook
      group_wait: 30s
      group_interval: 5m
      repeat_interval: 4h
      group_by: [alertname]
      routes:
      - receiver: webhook
        group_wait: 10s
        match:
          team: node
    receivers:
    - name: webhook
      webhook_configs:
      - url: 'http://apollo/hooks/dingtalk/'
        send_resolved: true
      - url: 'http://apollo/hooks/prome/'
        send_resolved: true

执行下面的命令即可:

$ kubectl apply -f cm.yaml

然后部署的文件deploy.yaml如下:

kind: Deployment
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: prometheus
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-ops
spec:
  replicas: 1
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: prometheus
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: prometheus
      containers:
      - image: prom/prometheus:v2.0.0-rc.3
        name: prometheus
        command:
        - "/bin/prometheus"
        args:
        - "--config.file=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml"
        - "--storage.tsdb.path=/prometheus"
        - "--storage.tsdb.retention=24h"
        ports:
        - containerPort: 9090
          protocol: TCP
          name: http
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: "/prometheus"
          name: data
          subPath: prometheus/data
        - mountPath: "/etc/prometheus"
          name: config-volume
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 100Mi
          limits:
            cpu: 200m
            memory: 1Gi
      - image: quay.io/prometheus/alertmanager:v0.12.0
        name: alertmanager
        args:
        - "-config.file=/etc/alertmanager/config.yml"
        - "-storage.path=/alertmanager"
        ports:
        - containerPort: 9093
          protocol: TCP
          name: http
        volumeMounts:
        - name: alertmanager-config-volume
          mountPath: /etc/alertmanager
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 50m
            memory: 50Mi
          limits:
            cpu: 200m
            memory: 200Mi
      volumes:
      - name: data
        emptyDir: {}
      - configMap:
          name: prometheus-config
        name: config-volume
      - name: alertmanager-config-volume
        configMap:
          name: alertmanager

执行下面的命令即可: 执行下面的命令即可:

$ kubectl apply -f deploy.yaml

最后来看一张我们钉钉收到的报警信息吧: dingtalk

注意:本文章的实现都是针对Prometheus2.x版本,1.x 版本配置会有所不同

本文中用到的kubernetes相关的yaml文件我已经归档到github上,可以在这里https://github.com/cnych/k8s-repo/tree/master/prometheus查看

参考文档

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